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List of over 100 different types of Arthritis

 

Arthritis is a complex group of conditions affecting the joints and causing pain, stiffness, and inflammation. There are indeed over 100 different types of arthritis, each with its unique characteristics, causes, and treatment options. Enclosed is a list of all 100 and a short description a mention of  how treatable, common causes, triggers and symptoms:

 

  1. Osteoarthritis (OA)

    • Remission: Generally no
    • Description: Wear and tear on joints, cartilage breakdown.
    • Causes: Aging, joint injury, obesity.
    • Triggers: Overuse of joints, obesity, joint injury.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, stiffness, limited range of motion.
    • Learn more on Osteoarthritis
    • The Causes of Osteoarthrits
  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)

  3. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA)

  4. Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS)
  5. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)
  6. Gout (Primary)

    • Remission: Can be controlled with medication and lifestyle changes.
    • Description: Buildup of uric acid crystals in joints.
    • Causes: Diet high in purines, genetic factors.
    • Triggers: Alcohol, certain foods.
    • Symptoms: Sudden, intense joint pain, redness, swelling.
    • Learn more on Gout
    • The Causes of Gout
  7. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
  8. Reactive Arthritis
  9. Systemic Sclerosis (Scleroderma)
  10. Sjögren’s Syndrome
  11. Mixed Connective Tissue Disease (MCTD)
  12. Polymyalgia Rheumatica (PMR)
  13. Adult-Onset Still’s Disease
  14. Behçet’s Disease
  15. Palindromic Rheumatism
  16. Wegener’s Granulomatosis (Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis)
  17. Felty’s Syndrome
  18. Microscopic Polyangiitis
  19. Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (Churg-Strauss Syndrome)
  20. Polychondritis
    • Remission: Varies; some symptoms may improve with treatment.
    • Description: Inflammation of cartilage in various areas of the body.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Unknown.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, cartilage inflammation.
    • Learn more on Polychondritis
    • The Causes of Polychondritis
  21. Relapsing Polychondritis
  22. Caplan’s Syndrome
  23. Still’s Disease (Systemic-Onset Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis)
  24. Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH)
  25. Dermatomyositis
  26. Polyarteritis Nodosa
  27. Giant Cell Arteritis (Temporal Arteritis)
  28. Hypertrophic Osteoarthropathy
  29. Buerger’s Disease (Thromboangiitis Obliterans)
  30. Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP)
  31. Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease (UCTD)
  32. Refsum’s Disease
  33. Pseudogout (Calcium Pyrophosphate Deposition Disease)
  34. Chondrocalcinosis

    35. Bicipital Tendinitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the biceps tendon at the shoulder.
    • Causes: Overuse, repetitive overhead activities.
    • Triggers: Sports-related activities, occupations involving repetitive arm movements.
    • Symptoms: Shoulder pain, tenderness, swelling, pain with overhead activities.
    • Remission: Rest, ice, physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications.Bicipital Tendinitis.
    • Learn more: Bicipital Tendinitis
    • The Causes of  Bicipital Tendinitis

    36. Brucellar Spondylitis

    • Description: Infection-related spondylitis caused by Brucella bacteria.
    • Causes: Bacterial infection from Brucella species.
    • Triggers: Contact with infected animals or consumption of contaminated dairy products.
    • Symptoms: Back pain, fever, fatigue, joint stiffness.
    • Remission: Controlled with appropriate antibiotic treatment.
    • Learn more: Brucellar Spondylitis
    • The Cause of  Brucellar Spondylitis

    37. Bursitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the bursae, fluid-filled sacs that cushion joints.
    • Causes: Repetitive motion, injury, infection.
    • Triggers: Overuse, trauma, infection.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, warmth, limited range of motion.
    • Remission: Rest, ice, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more:Bursitis
    • The Cause of Bursitis

    38. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    • Description: Compression of the median nerve in the wrist.
    • Causes: Repetitive hand/wrist movements, injury, pregnancy.
    • Triggers: Repetitive strain, underlying health conditions.
    • Symptoms: Numbness, tingling, weakness in the hand.
    • Remission: Splinting, corticosteroid injections, surgery if necessary.
    • Learn more: Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
    • The Causes of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    39. Costosternal Syndrome

    • Description: Inflammation of the junctions where the upper ribs join with the cartilage that holds them to the breastbone.
    • Causes: Unknown; may be related to autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Physical strain, trauma, viral infections.
    • Symptoms: Chest pain, tenderness, discomfort with deep breathing or coughing.
    • Remission: Anti-inflammatory medications, physical therapy.
    • Learn more: Costosternal Syndrome
    • The Cause of Costosternal Syndrome

    40. CREST Syndrome

    • Description: A type of limited systemic sclerosis characterized by calcinosis, Raynaud’s phenomenon, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasia.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Unknown.
    • Symptoms: Calcinosis (calcium deposits in the skin), Raynaud’s phenomenon (discoloration of fingers or toes in response to cold or stress), esophageal dysfunction, skin thickening on fingers (sclerodactyly), visible blood vessels under the skin (telangiectasia).
    • Remission: Symptom management with medications and lifestyle adjustments.
    • Learn more: CREST Syndrome
    • The Cause of CREST Syndrome

    41. Cryoglobulinemia

    • Description: Condition characterized by abnormal proteins (cryoglobulins) in the blood that can cause blood vessel inflammation.
    • Causes: Hepatitis C infection, autoimmune disorders, certain cancers.
    • Triggers: Cold exposure, infections, immune system abnormalities.
    • Symptoms: Skin rash, joint pain, weakness, organ damage (kidneys, nerves, skin).
    • Remission: Treatment depends on the underlying cause; may include antiviral therapy, immunosuppressants.
    • Learn more: Cryoglobulinemia
    • The Cause of Cryoglobulinemia

    42. Cryopyrin-Associated Periodic Syndromes (CAPS)

    43. Degenerative Disc Disease

    • Description: Wear and tear on spinal discs, leading to pain and discomfort.
    • Causes: Aging, repetitive strain, injury.
    • Triggers: Poor posture, heavy lifting, sedentary lifestyle.
    • Symptoms: Back pain, radiating pain, numbness or tingling in the extremities.
    • Remission: Symptom management with physical therapy, pain medications, lifestyle changes.
    • Learn more: Degenerative Disc Disease
    • The Cause of Degenerative Disc Disease

    44. Degenerative Joint Disease

    • Description: Another term for osteoarthritis, the most common type of arthritis.
    • Causes: Wear and tear on joint cartilage over time.
    • Triggers: Aging, joint injuries, obesity.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, stiffness, decreased range of motion.
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on symptom management, lifestyle changes.
    • Learn more: Degenerative Joint Disease

    45. Dermatomyositis

    • Description: Inflammatory disease affecting the skin and muscles.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Unknown; may be associated with infections or medications.
    • Symptoms: Skin rash (Gottron’s papules), muscle weakness, difficulty swallowing.
    • Remission: Treatment with immunosuppressants, physical therapy.
    • Learn more: Dermatomyositis

    46. Diabetic Finger Sclerosis

    • Description: Thickening and tightening of the skin on the fingers due to diabetes-related changes.
    • Causes: Prolonged uncontrolled diabetes.
    • Triggers: Poor blood sugar control, duration of diabetes.
    • Symptoms: Stiffness, limited mobility in the fingers.
    • Remission: Tight glycemic control, topical treatments for symptoms.
    • Learn more: Diabetic Finger Sclerosis

    47. Discitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the intervertebral discs in the spine.
    • Causes: Bacterial or fungal infection, trauma.
    • Triggers: Infection, injury.
    • Symptoms: Back pain, fever, stiffness.
    • Remission: Treatment with antibiotics or antifungal medications, rest.
    • Learn more: Discitis

    48. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

    • Description: Form of lupus affecting the skin, particularly on the face and scalp.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Sun exposure, genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Skin lesions, red patches, hair loss.
    • Remission: Treatment with topical or systemic medications, sun protection.
    • Learn more: Discoid Lupus Erythematosus

    49. Drug-Induced Lupus

    • Description: Lupus-like symptoms triggered by certain medications.
    • Causes: Reaction to medications (e.g., hydralazine, procainamide).
    • Triggers: Specific drugs.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, fatigue, skin rash.
    • Remission: Discontinuation of the triggering medication, symptom management.
    • Learn more: Drug-Induced Lupus

    50. Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy

    • Description: Genetic disorder characterized by progressive muscle weakness.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation affecting dystrophin production.
    • Triggers: Inherited condition.
    • Symptoms: Muscle weakness, difficulty walking, respiratory problems.
    • Remission: Symptom management, physical therapy, respiratory support.
    • Learn more: Duchenne’s Muscular Dystrophy

    51. Dupuytren’s Contracture

    • Description: Progressive hand condition where the fingers bend towards the palm and cannot be fully straightened.
    • Causes: Unknown; may involve genetic and environmental factors.
    • Triggers: Family history, age.
    • Symptoms: Thickening of the skin on the palm, finger contractures.
    • Remission: Treatment with collagenase injections, surgery in severe cases.
    • Learn more:Dupuytren’s Contracture

    52. Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    • Description: Group of genetic connective tissue disorders affecting skin, joints, and blood vessels.
    • Causes: Genetic mutations affecting collagen production.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Joint hypermobility, skin hyperextensibility, tissue fragility.
    • Remission: Symptom management, physical therapy.
    • Learn more:Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

    53.Enteropathic Arthritis

    • Description: Inflammatory arthritis associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn’s disease or ulcerative colitis.
    • Causes: Thought to be related to autoimmune factors and gut inflammation.
    • Triggers: Flare-ups of IBD.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, stiffness, gastrointestinal symptoms.
    • Remission: Management of underlying IBD, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more: Enteropathic Arthritis

    54.Epicondylitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the tendons that attach to the elbow.
    • Causes: Repetitive stress or overuse of the forearm muscles.
    • Triggers: Repetitive motions (e.g., gripping, lifting).
    • Symptoms: Elbow pain, difficulty with gripping objects.
    • Remission: Rest, physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more: Epicondylitis

    55.Erosive Inflammatory Osteoarthritis

    • Description: A form of osteoarthritis where there is significant joint damage and erosion.
    • Causes: Combination of mechanical wear and inflammatory processes.
    • Triggers: Joint stress, inflammation.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, deformity.
    • Remission: Pain management, joint protection techniques.
    • Learn more:Erosive Inflammatory Osteoarthritis

    56.Exercise-Induced Compartment Syndrome

    • Description: Increased pressure within a muscle compartment during exercise, causing pain and swelling.
    • Causes: Muscle expansion during exercise.
    • Triggers: Repetitive physical activities.
    • Symptoms: Muscle pain, numbness, weakness during exercise.
    • Remission: Rest, modification of exercise routines, surgical intervention in severe cases.
    • Learn more: Exercise-Induced Compartment Syndrome

    57. Farber’s Disease

    • Description: Rare lysosomal storage disease affecting joints and other organs.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation affecting the enzyme acid ceramidase.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Joint stiffness, nodules under the skin, respiratory issues.
    • Remission: Symptom management, supportive care.
    • Learn more: Farber’s Disease

    58. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    • Description: Inherited autoinflammatory disorder characterized by recurrent fevers and inflammation.
    • Causes: Genetic mutations affecting the Mediterranean fever gene (MEFV).
    • Triggers: Stress, infections.
    • Symptoms: Recurrent fevers, abdominal pain, joint inflammation.
    • Remission: Colchicine treatment to prevent attacks, supportive care during flares.
    • Learn more: Familial Mediterranean Fever

    59. Immune Complex Disease

    • Description: Autoimmune disorder where immune complexes deposit in joints, causing inflammation and damage.
    • Causes: Abnormal immune response.
    • Triggers: Unknown, possibly related to infections or genetic factors.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, fatigue.
    • Remission: Immunosuppressive medications, anti-inflammatory treatments.
    • Learn more: Immune Complex Disease

    60. Impingement Syndrome

    • Description: Compression or pinching of tendons and muscles in the shoulder joint, leading to pain and limited movement.
    • Causes: Overuse, repetitive shoulder movements, structural abnormalities.
    • Triggers: Shoulder trauma, poor posture.
    • Symptoms: Shoulder pain, limited range of motion.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, corticosteroid injections.
    • Learn more: Impingement Syndrome

    61. Jaccoud’s Arthropathy

    • Description: Non-erosive deformities of joints, often associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
    • Causes: Autoimmune response affecting joint tissues.
    • Triggers: Systemic autoimmune conditions.
    • Symptoms: Joint deformities, pain, swelling.
    • Remission: Treatment of underlying autoimmune disorder.
    • Learn more: Jaccoud’s Arthropathy

    62. Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    • Description: Ankylosing spondylitis that manifests in children and adolescents.
    • Causes: Genetic predisposition, autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Inflammatory processes, genetic susceptibility.
    • Symptoms: Back pain, stiffness, limited mobility.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more: Juvenile Ankylosing Spondylitis

    63. Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    • Description: Inflammatory myopathy affecting children, involving muscle weakness and skin rashes.
    • Causes: Autoimmune dysfunction.
    • Triggers: Unknown, possibly viral infections.
    • Symptoms: Muscle weakness, skin rash, joint pain.
    • Remission: Corticosteroids, immunosuppressive medications.
    • Learn more: Juvenile Dermatomyositis

    64. Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

    • Description: Chronic inflammatory arthritis in children, affecting joints and potentially causing long-term disability.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Genetic predisposition, environmental factors.
    • Symptoms: Joint swelling, stiffness, fever.
    • Remission: Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), physical therapy.
    • Learn more: Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis

    65. Kawasaki Disease

    • Description: Childhood illness that causes inflammation in blood vessels throughout the body.
    • Causes: Unknown, possibly triggered by viral infections.
    • Triggers: Viral or bacterial infections.
    • Symptoms: High fever, rash, swollen lymph nodes.
    • Remission: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), aspirin therapy.
    • Learn more: Kawasaki Disease

    66. Kienbock’s Disease

    • Description: Avascular necrosis of the lunate bone in the wrist, leading to pain and limited hand function.
    • Causes: Disruption of blood supply to the lunate bone.
    • Triggers: Trauma, repetitive stress.
    • Symptoms: Wrist pain, decreased grip strength.
    • Remission: Surgical interventions, wrist immobilization.
    • Learn more: Kienbock’s Disease

    67. Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

    • Description: Childhood condition where blood supply to the ball part of the hip joint (femoral head) is temporarily disrupted, leading to bone death and eventual regrowth.
    • Causes: Unknown; possibly related to genetic factors or trauma.
    • Triggers: Reduced blood flow to the hip joint.
    • Symptoms: Hip pain, limping, limited range of motion.
    • Remission: Rest, physical therapy, sometimes surgical interventions.
    • Learn more: Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease

    68. Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

    • Description: Rare genetic disorder that affects how the body processes purines, leading to high levels of uric acid and neurological problems.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation affecting the HPRT1 gene.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Neurological issues, involuntary muscle movements, joint problems.
    • Remission: Symptomatic management, supportive care.
    • Learn more: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome

    69. Linear Scleroderma

    • Description: Localized form of scleroderma where thickened skin and underlying tissues affect a specific area of the body.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors.
    • Triggers: Unknown, possibly related to immune dysfunction.
    • Symptoms: Skin hardening, joint stiffness, limited movement.
    • Remission: Treatment to manage symptoms and slow progression.
    • Learn more: Linear Scleroderma

    70. Lipoid Metabolic Disorder

    • Description: Arthritis associated with lipid metabolism disorders, characterized by joint inflammation and lipid deposition.
    • Causes: Metabolic abnormalities affecting lipid metabolism.
    • Triggers: Genetic factors.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, skin changes.
    • Remission: Lipid-lowering therapies, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more: Lipoid Dermatoarthritis

    71. Lofgren’s Syndrome

    • Description: Acute form of sarcoidosis characterized by erythema nodosum (painful skin nodules), bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, and arthritis.
    • Causes: Immune system dysfunction.
    • Triggers: Environmental factors, possibly genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Skin nodules, joint pain, enlarged lymph nodes.
    • Remission: Corticosteroids, immunosuppressive therapies.
    • Learn more: Lofgren’s Syndrome

    72. Lyme Disease

    • Description: Bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi transmitted through the bite of infected ticks.
    • Causes: Tick bites carrying Borrelia burgdorferi.
    • Triggers: Tick exposure in endemic areas.
    • Symptoms: Bull’s-eye rash, fever, joint pain.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, supportive care.
    • Learn more: Lyme Disease

    73. Malignant Synovioma

    • Description: Rare malignant tumor arising from synovial tissue in joints.
    • Causes: Genetic mutations, possibly environmental factors.
    • Triggers: Unknown, likely genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, mass formation.
    • Remission: Surgical resection, radiation therapy, chemotherapy.
    • Learn more: Malignant Synovioma

    74. Marfan’s Syndrome

    • Description: Genetic connective tissue disorder affecting multiple organ systems, including the skeleton, heart, and eyes.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation in the FBN1 gene.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Tall stature, joint hypermobility, cardiovascular complications.
    • Remission: Symptomatic management, cardiac monitoring.
    • Learn more: Marfan’s Syndrome

    75. Medial Plica Syndrome

    • Description: Condition where the medial plica, a fold in the lining of the knee joint, becomes irritated and inflamed.
    • Causes: Repetitive stress, overuse, or injury to the knee joint.
    • Triggers: Knee joint trauma or repetitive motion.
    • Symptoms: Knee pain, clicking or snapping sensation, swelling.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more: Medial Plica Syndrome

    76. Metastatic Carcinomatous Arthritis

    • Description: Arthritis caused by the spread of cancer cells to the joints from a primary tumor elsewhere in the body.
    • Causes: Metastasis of cancer cells to joint tissues.
    • Triggers: Primary cancer diagnosis.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, decreased range of motion.
    • Remission: Treatment directed at primary cancer, palliative care.
    • Learn more: Metastatic Carcinomatous Arthritis

    77. Mixed Cryoglobulinemia

    • Description: Vasculitis characterized by abnormal proteins (cryoglobulins) in the blood that precipitate and cause damage to blood vessels.
    • Causes: Hepatitis C infection, autoimmune disorders.
    • Triggers: Hepatitis C virus.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, purpura, kidney disease.
    • Remission: Antiviral therapy, immunosuppressive drugs.
    • Learn more: Mixed Cryoglobulinemia

    78. Mucopolysaccharidosis

    • Description: Group of inherited metabolic disorders characterized by the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in tissues and organs.
    • Causes: Genetic mutations affecting enzymes involved in GAG metabolism.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Joint stiffness, skeletal abnormalities, organ dysfunction.
    • Remission: Supportive care, enzyme replacement therapy.
    • Learn more: Mucopolysaccharidosis

    79. Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis

    • Description: Rare systemic disease involving proliferation of histiocytes, affecting joints and skin.
    • Causes: Unknown; possibly related to immune dysfunction.
    • Triggers: Not well understood.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, skin nodules, fever.
    • Remission: Immunosuppressive therapy, targeted treatments.
    • Learn more: Multicentric Reticulohistiocytosis

    80. Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia

    • Description: Genetic disorder affecting the growth of the ends of bones (epiphyses), leading to joint pain and stiffness.
    • Causes: Genetic mutations affecting cartilage development.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, limited range of motion, early-onset osteoarthritis.
    • Remission: Symptom management, joint preservation techniques.
    • Learn more: Multiple Epiphyseal Dysplasia

    81. Mycoplasmal Arthritis

    • Description: Arthritis caused by Mycoplasma infection, a type of bacteria.
    • Causes: Mycoplasma infection.
    • Triggers: Exposure to infected individuals or contaminated environments.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, fever.
    • Remission: Antibiotic therapy, supportive care.
    • Learn more: Mycoplasma Arthritis

    82. Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    • Description: Chronic pain disorder characterized by trigger points and muscle pain.
    • Causes: Overuse, injury, stress, or repetitive motions.
    • Triggers: Muscle overuse or strain.
    • Symptoms: Muscle pain, stiffness, fatigue.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, medications, stress reduction.
    • Learn more: Myofascial Pain Syndrome

    83. Neonatal Lupus

    • Description: Autoimmune condition affecting newborns of mothers with certain autoantibodies.
    • Causes: Transfer of autoantibodies from mother to fetus.
    • Triggers: Maternal autoimmunity.
    • Symptoms: Skin rash, liver problems, blood abnormalities.
    • Remission: Symptomatic treatment, monitoring.
    • Learn more: Neonatal Lupus

    84. Neuropathic Arthropathy

    • Description: Charcot joint, a condition characterized by progressive joint degeneration due to nerve damage.
    • Causes: Diabetes, neurologic disorders, spinal cord injury.
    • Triggers: Nerve damage, sensory loss.
    • Symptoms: Joint deformity, painless swelling, decreased sensation.
    • Remission: Foot care, pain management, orthopedic interventions.
    • Learn more: Neuropathic Arthropathy

    85. Nodular Panniculitis

    • Description: Inflammatory disorder affecting the subcutaneous fat layer, sometimes associated with underlying systemic conditions.
    • Causes: Idiopathic or related to autoimmune diseases, infections, or malignancies.
    • Triggers: Unknown; may be related to immune dysfunction.
    • Symptoms: Tender nodules under the skin, joint pain, systemic symptoms.
    • Remission: Treatment of underlying condition, anti-inflammatory therapies.
    • Learn more: Nodular Panniculitis

    86. Ochronosis

    • Description: Rare metabolic disorder characterized by the accumulation of homogentisic acid in connective tissues, leading to arthritis and pigmentation changes.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation affecting metabolism of tyrosine.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, darkened skin pigmentation, cartilage calcification.
    • Remission: Symptomatic treatment, management of complications.
    • Learn more: Ochronosis

    87. Olecranon Bursitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the bursa located over the olecranon process of the elbow.
    • Causes: Trauma, repetitive pressure, infection.
    • Triggers: Direct trauma or prolonged pressure on the elbow.
    • Symptoms: Swelling, pain at the back of the elbow.
    • Remission: Rest, ice, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more: Olecranon Bursitis

    88. Pellegrini-Stieda Syndrome

    • Description: Calcification or ossification of the medial collateral ligament of the knee following injury.
    • Causes: Previous trauma to the knee, such as a ligament sprain or tear.
    • Triggers: Injury or trauma to the knee joint.
    • Symptoms: Pain, swelling, limited range of motion.
    • Remission: Conservative treatment, physical therapy.
    • Learn more: Pellegrini-Stieda Syndrome

    89. Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

    • Description: Rare, benign tumor affecting the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths, and bursae.
    • Causes: Unknown; may involve genetic factors.
    • Triggers: Unknown; possibly related to inflammation or trauma.
    • Symptoms: Joint swelling, pain, stiffness.
    • Remission: Surgery, radiation, targeted therapy.
    • Learn more: Pigmented Villonodular Synovitis

    90. Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the posterior tibial tendon that supports the arch of the foot.
    • Causes: Overuse, injury, or biomechanical factors.
    • Triggers: Repetitive stress, excessive running or walking.
    • Symptoms: Pain, swelling on the inner side of the ankle and foot, flatfoot deformity.
    • Remission: Rest, orthotics, physical therapy.
    • Learn more: Posterior Tibial Tendinitis

    91. Pott’s Disease

    • Description: Spinal tuberculosis affecting the intervertebral discs and adjacent vertebrae.
    • Causes: Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.
    • Triggers: Tuberculosis infection elsewhere in the body.
    • Symptoms: Back pain, stiffness, spinal deformity.
    • Remission: Anti-tuberculosis medications, surgery in severe cases.
    • Learn more: Pott’s Disease

    92. Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    • Description: Genetic disorder characterized by fragile bones that break easily, also known as brittle bone disease.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation affecting collagen production.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Fractures, bone deformities, blue sclerae.
    • Remission: Supportive care, physical therapy, bisphosphonate treatment.
    • Learn more: Osteogenesis Imperfecta

    93. Osteomalacia

    • Description: Softening of the bones due to impaired mineralization, often caused by vitamin D deficiency.
    • Causes: Vitamin D deficiency, inadequate calcium intake.
    • Triggers: Insufficient sunlight exposure, malabsorption disorders.
    • Symptoms: Bone pain, muscle weakness, fractures.
    • Remission: Vitamin D supplementation, calcium intake, underlying disorder treatment.
    • Learn more: Osteomalacia

    94. Osteomyelitis

    • Description: Bone infection typically caused by bacteria, but can also be fungal or viral.
    • Causes: Bacterial invasion of bone tissue.
    • Triggers: Open fractures, surgical procedures, bloodstream infections.
    • Symptoms: Bone pain, fever, swelling, redness.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, surgical drainage, bone debridement.
    • Learn more: Osteomyelitis

    95. Osteonecrosis

    • Description: Death of bone tissue due to lack of blood supply.
    • Causes: Trauma, steroid use, excessive alcohol consumption, sickle cell disease.
    • Triggers: Injury, chronic diseases affecting blood vessels.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, limited mobility, joint collapse.
    • Remission: Medication, surgical interventions like core decompression or joint replacement.
    • Learn more: Osteonecrosis

    96. Osteoporosis

    • Description: Bone disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue, leading to increased risk of fractures.
    • Causes: Age-related bone loss, hormonal changes, inadequate calcium intake.
    • Triggers: Menopause, sedentary lifestyle, certain medications.
    • Symptoms: Fractures, loss of height, stooped posture.
    • Remission: Calcium and vitamin D supplementation, weight-bearing exercise, medication.
    • Learn more: Osteoporosis

    97. Overlap Syndrome

    • Description: Term used when a patient exhibits symptoms of more than one connective tissue disease.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors affecting multiple systems.
    • Triggers: Unknown, likely genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Varied depending on overlapping diseases.
    • Remission: Symptomatic treatment targeting specific conditions.
    • Learn more: Overlap Syndrome

    98. Pachydermoperiostosis

    • Description: Rare genetic disorder characterized by clubbing of the fingers and toes, thickened skin, and bone changes.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation affecting a specific gene.
    • Triggers: Genetic inheritance.
    • Symptoms: Thickened skin, clubbed fingers and toes, joint pain.
    • Remission: Symptomatic treatment, surgical interventions if necessary.
    • Learn more: Pachydermoperiostosis

    99. Paget’s Disease of Bone

    • Description: Chronic bone disorder characterized by abnormal breakdown and formation of bone tissue.
    • Causes: Genetic factors, viral infection (possibly).
    • Triggers: Unknown, genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Bone pain, fractures, bone deformities.
    • Remission: Medication, surgery for severe cases.
    • Learn more: Paget’s Disease of Bone

    100. Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    • Description: Knee pain originating from the patellofemoral joint due to abnormal tracking of the kneecap.
    • Causes: Overuse, muscle imbalances, trauma.
    • Triggers: Repetitive activities like running, climbing stairs.
    • Symptoms: Knee pain, especially with activities.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, activity modification, orthotics.
    • Learn more: Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

    101. Piriformis Syndrome

    • Description: Compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve by the piriformis muscle in the buttocks.
    • Causes: Muscle spasms, trauma, overuse.
    • Triggers: Prolonged sitting, vigorous exercise.
    • Symptoms: Buttock pain, sciatica-like symptoms.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, stretching, massage.
    • Learn more: Piriformis Syndrome

    102. Plantar Fasciitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the thick band of tissue (plantar fascia) that connects the heel bone to the toes.
    • Causes: Overuse, high-impact activities, tight calf muscles.
    • Triggers: Prolonged standing, improper footwear.
    • Symptoms: Heel pain, stiffness, tenderness.
    • Remission: Rest, stretching, orthotics.
    • Learn more: Plantar Fasciitis

    Polyarthritis

    • Description Oligoarthritis, or pauciarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is characterized by inflammation of fewer than five joints within the first six months of disease onset. It commonly affects large joints like knees and ankles, leading to pain, swelling, and stiffness. Oligoarthritis is often associated with eye inflammation (uveitis), requiring specialized care and regular monitoring.
    • Causes The exact cause of oligoarthritis is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors triggering an autoimmune response against joint tissues.
    • Triggers Oligoarthritis can be triggered by environmental factors or infections in genetically susceptible individuals, leading to joint inflammation and subsequent symptoms.
    • Symptoms: Oligoarthritis include joint pain, swelling, and stiffness, primarily affecting the knees, ankles, and other large joints. Eye inflammation (uveitis) is a common complication associated with this type of arthritis.
    • Remission Treatment aims to control inflammation, preserve joint function, and manage associated complications like uveitis. Some individuals may achieve remission with early intervention and appropriate therapy.
    • Learn more: Polyarthitis

    103. Polymyositis

    • Description: Inflammatory disease that causes muscle weakness and inflammation.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors, genetic predisposition.
    • Triggers: Unknown.
    • Symptoms: Muscle weakness, difficulty swallowing, fatigue.
    • Remission: Corticosteroids, immunosuppressants.
    • Learn more: Polymyositis

    104. Popliteal Cysts (Baker’s Cyst)

    • Description: Fluid-filled cyst behind the knee joint.
    • Causes: Joint inflammation, injury, arthritis.
    • Triggers: Overuse, trauma.
    • Symptoms: Swelling, tightness behind the knee.
    • Remission: RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation), corticosteroid injections.
    • Learn more: Popliteal Cysts 

    105. Prosthetic Joint Infection

    • Description: Infection of a joint replacement (prosthesis).
    • Causes: Bacterial contamination during surgery, systemic infection.
    • Triggers: Surgical procedure, bacterial exposure.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, warmth around the joint.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, surgical debridement, revision surgery.
    • Learn more: Prosthetic Joint Infection

    106. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum (PXE)

    • Description: Genetic disorder affecting the skin, eyes, and cardiovascular system.
    • Causes: Mutations in the ABCC6 gene.
    • Triggers: Genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Skin changes, eye problems, cardiovascular complications.
    • Remission: Symptomatic treatment, surgical interventions.
    • Learn more: Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum

    107. Raynaud’s Phenomenon

    • Description: Cold-induced vasospasm of the arteries, usually affecting the fingers and toes.
    • Causes: Abnormal vascular response to cold or stress.
    • Triggers: Cold exposure, emotional stress.
    • Symptoms: Color changes in the skin, numbness, pain.
    • Remission: Avoidance of triggers, medications.
    • Learn more: Raynaud’s Phenomenon

    108. Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (Complex Regional Pain Syndrome)

    • Description: Chronic pain condition affecting one limb after an injury.
    • Causes: Abnormal response of the nervous system to injury.
    • Triggers: Trauma, surgery, stroke.
    • Symptoms: Constant pain, swelling, changes in skin temperature.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, pain management.
    • Learn more: Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome (CRPS)

    109. Rheumatic Fever

    • Description: Inflammatory disease that can develop as a complication of untreated strep throat.
    • Causes: Streptococcus bacteria (group A strep).
    • Triggers: Untreated strep throat infection.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, fever, skin rash.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications.
    • Learn more: Rheumatic Fever

    110. Rheumatoid Vasculitis

    • Description: Inflammation of blood vessels due to rheumatoid arthritis.
    • Causes: Autoimmune response targeting blood vessel walls.
    • Triggers: Chronic inflammation, immune system dysfunction.
    • Symptoms: Skin ulcers, nerve damage, organ dysfunction.
    • Remission: Immunosuppressive medications, corticosteroids.
    • Learn more: Rheumatoid Vasculitis

    111. Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the tendons and muscles of the rotator cuff in the shoulder.
    • Causes: Overuse, shoulder injury, aging.
    • Triggers: Repetitive overhead movements, sports activities.
    • Symptoms: Shoulder pain, weakness, limited range of motion.
    • Remission: Rest, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections.
    • Learn more: Rotator Cuff Tendinitis

    112. Sacroiliitis

    • Description: Inflammation of one or both of the sacroiliac joints connecting the lower spine and pelvis.
    • Causes: Axial spondyloarthritis, infection, trauma.
    • Triggers: Chronic inflammation, injury.
    • Symptoms: Lower back pain, stiffness, buttock pain.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, NSAIDs, biologics.
    • Learn more: Sacroiliitis

    113. Salmonella Osteomyelitis

    • Description: Bone infection caused by the Salmonella bacteria.
    • Causes: Salmonella infection from contaminated food or water.
    • Triggers: Ingestion of contaminated food, immune system compromise.
    • Symptoms: Bone pain, fever, swelling.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, surgical debridement.
    • Learn more: Salmonella Osteomyelitis

    114. Sarcoidosis

    • Description: Inflammatory disease that can affect multiple organs, including the joints.
    • Causes: Unknown; possibly immune system response to environmental triggers.
    • Triggers: Environmental factors, genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Fatigue, swollen lymph nodes, joint pain.
    • Remission: Corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs.
    • Learn more: Sarcoidosis

    115. Saturnine Gout (Lead-induced Gout)

    • Description: Gout triggered by lead poisoning.
    • Causes: Lead exposure, ingestion of lead-contaminated substances.
    • Triggers: Lead exposure, chronic lead toxicity.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, gouty arthritis.
    • Remission: Chelation therapy, lead exposure prevention.
    • Learn more: Saturnine Gout

    116. Scheuermann’s Osteochondritis

    • Description: Developmental disorder of the spine characterized by abnormal growth of the vertebrae.
    • Causes: Genetic factors, abnormal bone development.
    • Triggers: Adolescent growth spurts, repetitive stress.
    • Symptoms: Back pain, spinal curvature (kyphosis).
    • Remission: Physical therapy, bracing, surgery in severe cases.
    • Learn more: Scheuermann’s Disease

    117. Septic Arthritis

    • Description: Joint infection caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi.
    • Causes: Microbial invasion of joint space via bloodstream or direct entry.
    • Triggers: Open wounds, surgical procedures, immunocompromised state.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, fever.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, drainage of infected joint fluid.
    • Learn more: Septic Arthritis

    118. Seronegative Arthritis

    • Description: Arthritis characterized by negative results for rheumatoid factor in blood tests.
    • Causes: Autoimmune factors, genetic predisposition.
    • Triggers: Unknown, possibly environmental.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, inflammation, stiffness.
    • Remission: NSAIDs, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).
    • Learn more: Seronegative Arthritis

    119. Shigella Arthritis

    • Description: Reactive arthritis triggered by Shigella infection.
    • Causes: Shigella bacteria from contaminated food or water.
    • Triggers: Ingestion of contaminated food, unsanitary conditions.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, diarrhea, abdominal cramps.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, supportive care for infection.
    • Learn more: Shigella Arthritis

    120. Shoulder-Hand Syndrome (Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy)

    • Description: Painful condition affecting the shoulder and hand, often following trauma.
    • Causes: Abnormal nerve responses, injury, surgery.
    • Triggers: Nerve injury, immobilization.
    • Symptoms: Severe pain, swelling, limited range of motion.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, sympathetic nerve blocks.
    • Learn more: Shoulder-Hand Syndrome

    121. Sickle Cell Arthropathy

    • Description: Joint complications associated with sickle cell disease.
    • Causes: Abnormal hemoglobin in red blood cells, leading to sickle cell formation.
    • Triggers: Low oxygen levels, dehydration, stress.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, limited mobility.
    • Remission: Pain management, hydroxyurea therapy.
    • Learn more: Sickle Cell Arthropathy

    122. Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis (SCFE)

    • Description: Displacement of the ball at the upper end of the femur bone at the hip joint.
    • Causes: Growth plate weakness during adolescent growth spurt.
    • Triggers: Obesity, hormonal changes.
    • Symptoms: Hip or knee pain, limping.
    • Remission: Surgical stabilization, physical therapy.
    • Learn more: Slipped Capital Femoral Epiphysis

    123. Spinal Stenosis

    • Description: Narrowing of the spinal canal, putting pressure on the spinal cord and nerves.
    • Causes: Aging, degenerative changes, spinal injuries.
    • Triggers: Herniated discs, arthritis, spinal tumors.
    • Symptoms: Back pain, numbness, weakness in limbs.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, epidural injections, surgery.
    • Learn more: Spinal Stenosis

    124. Spondylosis

    • Description: Degenerative osteoarthritis of the spine.
    • Causes: Aging, wear and tear on spinal discs and joints.
    • Triggers: Repetitive motion, obesity, genetics.
    • Symptoms: Neck or back pain, stiffness, reduced range of motion.
    • Remission: Physical therapy, pain management, surgery in severe cases.
    • Learn more: Spondylosis

    125. Staphylococcus Arthritis

    • Description: Joint infection caused by Staphylococcus bacteria.
    • Causes: Bacterial invasion of joint space, often secondary to bloodstream infection.
    • Triggers: Skin wounds, surgical procedures, immunocompromised state.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, fever.
    • Remission: Antibiotics, drainage of infected joint fluid.
    • Learn more: Staphylococcus Arthritis

    126. Stickler Syndrome

    • Description: Genetic disorder affecting connective tissue, leading to joint problems.
    • Causes: Genetic mutation affecting collagen synthesis.
    • Triggers: Inherited genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, hypermobility, early-onset osteoarthritis.
    • Remission: Symptomatic treatment, surgical interventions.
    • Learn more: Stickler Syndrome

    127. Subacute Cutaneous Lupus

    • Description: Form of lupus erythematosus affecting the skin and sometimes joints.
    • Causes: Autoimmune dysfunction, genetic factors.
    • Triggers: Sunlight exposure, hormonal changes.
    • Symptoms: Skin rash, joint pain, fatigue.
    • Remission: Antimalarial drugs, immunosuppressants.
    • Learn more: Subacute Cutaneous Lupus

    128. Sweet’s Syndrome (Acute Febrile Neutrophilic Dermatosis)

    • Description: Rare skin condition often associated with systemic inflammation.
    • Causes: Unknown, possibly autoimmune or hypersensitivity reactions.
    • Triggers: Infections, medications, malignancies.
    • Symptoms: Fever, skin lesions, joint pain.
    • Remission: Corticosteroids, treatment of underlying cause.
    • Learn more: Sweet’s Syndrome

    129. Takayasu’s Arteritis (Giant Cell Arteritis of the Young)

    • Description: Chronic inflammation of the large blood vessels, primarily the aorta and its branches.
    • Causes: Autoimmune reaction targeting blood vessel walls.
    • Triggers: Unknown, possibly genetic predisposition.
    • Symptoms: Fatigue, muscle pain, limb weakness.
    • Remission: Corticosteroids, immunosuppressants.
    • Learn more: Takayasu’s Arteritis

    130. Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

    • Description: Compression of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel of the ankle.
    • Causes: Injury, overuse, inflammation.
    • Triggers: Repetitive stress, trauma.
    • Symptoms: Pain, tingling, numbness in the foot.
    • Remission: Rest, orthotics, corticosteroid injections.
    • Learn more: Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

    131. Tennis Elbow (Lateral Epicondylitis)

    • Description: Tendon inflammation at the outer elbow due to repetitive use of forearm muscles.
    • Causes: Overuse, repetitive motions.
    • Triggers: Racquet sports, manual labor.
    • Symptoms: Elbow pain, weakness in grip.
    • Remission: Rest, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections.
    • Learn more: Tennis Elbow

    132. Tietze’s Syndrome (Costochondritis)

    • Description: Inflammation of the costal cartilage, causing chest pain and tenderness.
    • Causes: Unknown, possibly viral or traumatic.
    • Triggers: Physical strain, infections.
    • Symptoms: Chest pain, swelling, tenderness over the ribs.
    • Remission: Pain relief medications, rest.
    • Learn more: Tietze’s Syndrome

    133. Transient Osteoporosis

    • Description: Temporary loss of bone density, typically in the hip joint.
    • Causes: Unknown, possibly related to hormonal changes.
    • Triggers: Pregnancy, prolonged bed rest.
    • Symptoms: Hip pain, limited mobility.
    • Remission: Rest, calcium and vitamin D supplements.
    • Learn more: Transient Osteoporosis

    134. Traumatic Arthritis

    • Description: Arthritis resulting from joint injury or trauma.
    • Causes: Joint fractures, dislocations, ligament tears.
    • Triggers: Acute joint trauma.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, stiffness, swelling.
    • Remission: Treatment of underlying injury, joint protection.
    • Learn more: Traumatic Arthritis

    135. Trochanteric Bursitis

    • Description: Inflammation of the bursa located near the greater trochanter of the femur.
    • Causes: Repetitive activities, hip injuries.
    • Triggers: Overuse, direct trauma.
    • Symptoms: Hip pain, tenderness over the outer hip.
    • Remission: Rest, physical therapy, corticosteroid injections.
    • Learn more: Trochanteric Bursitis

    136. Undifferentiated Arthritis

    • Description: Joint inflammation without meeting specific criteria for other types of arthritis.
    • Causes: Unknown, possibly autoimmune or inflammatory.
    • Triggers: Genetic predisposition, environmental factors.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, stiffness.
    • Remission: Symptomatic treatment, monitoring for progression.
    • Learn more: Undifferentiated Arthritis

    137. Urticarial Vasculitis

    • Description: Inflammation and damage of blood vessels due to an immune response.
    • Causes: Autoimmune dysfunction, unknown triggers.
    • Triggers: Infections, medications.
    • Symptoms: Skin rash, joint pain, abdominal pain.
    • Remission: Antihistamines, immunosuppressants.
    • Learn more: Urticarial Vasculitis

    138. Fibromyalgia

    • Description: Variable; symptoms can improve with lifestyle changes and treatment.
    • Causes: Unknown; likely involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
    • Triggers: Physical or emotional stress, weather changes, lack of sleep.
    • Symptoms: Widespread pain, fatigue, sleep disturbances, cognitive difficulties (fibro fog).
    • Remission: Variable; symptoms can improve with lifestyle changes and treatment.
    • Learn more: Fibromyalgia

    139. Secondary Osteoarthritis

    • Description: Joint degeneration due to underlying joint condition or injury.
    • Causes: Prior joint trauma, inflammatory diseases, congenital joint abnormalities.
    • Triggers: Overuse, repetitive stress, joint malalignment, autoimmune flare-ups.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, stiffness, swelling, reduced range of motion.
    • Remission: Management to reduce symptoms; potential for flare-ups with activity.
    • Learn more: Secondary Osteoarthritis

    140. Undifferentiated Spondyloarthritis (“Spondyloarthropathy”)

    • Description: Undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine and joints but does not meet the criteria for specific subtypes like ankylosing spondylitis or psoriatic arthritis.
    • Causes: The exact cause is unknown but likely involves a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
    • Triggers: Triggers may include infections, stress, or other environmental factors.
    • Symptoms: Common symptoms include inflammatory back pain, joint stiffness, enthesitis (inflammation at tendon insertions), and fatigue.
    • Remission: Achieving remission involves controlling inflammation through medications and lifestyle changes.
    • Learn more: Spondyloarthropathy

    141. IgG4-Related Disease

    • Description: IgG4-related disease is a chronic autoimmune condition characterized by tissue inflammation and swelling due to IgG4 antibody-mediated immune response.
    • Causes: The cause is unknown but likely involves immune system dysregulation.
    • Triggers: Are unclear but may include environmental factors or infections.
    • Symptoms: Symptoms vary depending on the organs involved but can include swelling, pain, and organ dysfunction.
    • Remission: Treatment with immunosuppressive medications can induce remission.
    • Learn more: IgG4-Related Arthritis

    142. Polymyositis and Dermatomyositis

    • Description: Polymyositis and dermatomyositis are rare autoimmune diseases characterized by muscle inflammation and weakness.
    • Causes: The cause is unknown but involves autoimmune dysfunction.
    • Triggers: Triggers may include infections, medications, or environmental factors.
    • Symptoms: Muscle weakness, skin rash (in dermatomyositis), difficulty swallowing, fatigue, and joint pain.
    • Remission: Remission can be achieved with immunosuppressive therapy.
    • Learn more: Myositis

    143. Lupus Nephritis

    • Description: Lupus nephritis is kidney inflammation caused by systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease.
    • Causes: Lupus nephritis is a complication of SLE.
    • Triggers: Triggers can include lupus flares, infections, or medications.
    • Symptoms: Blood or protein in urine, swelling, high blood pressure, and impaired kidney function.
    • Remission: Treatment aims to control inflammation and protect the kidneys.
    • Learn more: Lupus

    144. Secondary Sjögren’s Syndrome in Lupus

    • Description: Secondary Sjögren’s syndrome occurs in association with another autoimmune disease like lupus, affecting moisture-producing glands.
    • Causes: It is a complication of another autoimmune disease.
    • Triggers: Triggers are similar to the underlying autoimmune disease.
    • Symptoms: Dry eyes and mouth, fatigue, joint pain, and systemic symptoms.
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on symptom management and improving moisture production.
    • Learn more: Sjögren’s Syndrome

    145. Mucocutaneous Lupus Erythematosus

    • Description: Mucocutaneous lupus erythematosus primarily affects the skin and mucous membranes.
    • Causes: It is a subtype of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
    • Triggers: Similar triggers to SLE.
    • Symptoms: Skin rash, oral ulcers, hair loss, and photosensitivity.
    • Remission: Treatment involves medications to control skin symptoms.
    • Learn more: Lupus

    146. Localized Cutaneous Lupus

    • Description: Localized cutaneous lupus affects the skin without systemic involvement seen in SLE.
    • Causes: The cause is likely genetic and environmental.
    • Triggers: Sun exposure is a common trigger.
    • Symptoms: Skin rash, hair loss, and photosensitivity.
    • Remission: Treatment involves topical or systemic medications.
    • Learn more: Lupus

    147. Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Variants

    • Description: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has various presentations affecting multiple organ systems.
    • Causes: The cause is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors.
    • Triggers: Triggers include sunlight, infections, stress, and medications.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, skin rashes, fatigue, and organ involvement.
    • Remmission: Control inflammation with medications, lifestyle changes, and regular monitoring.
    • Learn more: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Variants

    148. SAPHO Syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis)

    • Description: SAPHO syndrome is a rare condition characterized by a combination of bone inflammation (osteitis), joint inflammation (synovitis), skin manifestations (acne and pustulosis), and bone overgrowth (hyperostosis).
    • Causes: The exact cause is unknown but likely involves both genetic and environmental factors.
    • Triggers: Triggers can include infections or other environmental factors.
    • Symptoms: Include joint pain, skin lesions (acne and pustulosis), and bone abnormalities.
    • Remission: Treatment aims to control inflammation and manage symptoms.
    • Learn more: SAPHO Syndrome

    149. Sacroiliitis

    • Description: Sacroiliitis is inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, which connect the spine to the pelvis.
    • Causes: Sacroiliitis can be caused by various conditions including spondyloarthritis, infection, or trauma.
    • Triggers: Triggers may include mechanical stress, infection, or autoimmune flare-ups.
    • Symptoms: Include lower back pain, stiffness, and sometimes radiating pain to the buttocks or legs.
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on reducing inflammation and managing pain.
    • Learn more: Sacroiliitis

    150. Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis)

    • Description: Scleroderma is a connective tissue disease that involves changes in the skin, blood vessels, muscles, and internal organs.
    • Causes: The exact cause is unknown; it may involve immune system dysfunction and vascular abnormalities.
    • Triggers: Triggers are unclear but may include environmental factors and genetics.
    • Symptoms: Symptoms vary widely but can include skin tightening, Raynaud’s phenomenon, digestive issues, and lung problems.
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications.
    • Learn more: Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis)

    151. Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMJ)

    • Description: Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJ) involve pain and dysfunction of the jaw joint and surrounding muscles.
    • Causes: TMJ disorders can be caused by various factors including jaw injury, arthritis, or teeth grinding.
    • Triggers: Triggers may include jaw overuse, stress, or poor posture.
    • Symptoms: Symptoms include jaw pain, clicking or popping sounds, difficulty chewing, and headaches.
    • Remission: Treatment often involves self-care measures, medications, or physical therapy.
    • Learn more: Temporomandibular Joint Disorders (TMJ)

    152. Periodic Fever Syndromes

    • Description Periodic fever syndromes refer to a group of autoinflammatory disorders characterized by recurrent episodes of fever and systemic inflammation without an underlying infection.
    • Causes Periodic fever syndromes are genetic disorders caused by mutations affecting the innate immune system, resulting in abnormal inflammatory responses and periodic episodes of fever.
    • Triggers Episodes of fever and inflammation in periodic fever syndromes can be triggered by various factors, including stress, infections, or other environmental stimuli.
    • Symptoms Common symptoms of periodic fever syndromes include recurrent fevers lasting several days, abdominal pain, joint inflammation, and skin rashes.
    • Remission Treatment for periodic fever syndromes involves managing symptoms during episodes,  Some patients may experience periods of remission with appropriate therapy.
    • Learn More about Periodic Fever Syndromes

    153. Secondary Gout

    • Description: Secondary gout develops as a result of other health conditions or factors that contribute to elevated uric acid levels.
    • Causes: Underlying conditions such as chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, certain medications (e.g., diuretics), or excessive alcohol consumption can lead to secondary gout.
    • Triggers: Triggers for secondary gout can include dietary factors (e.g., purine-rich foods), dehydration, sudden changes in uric acid levels, or trauma to the joint.
    • Symptoms: Symptoms of secondary gout are similar to primary gout and include sudden and severe joint pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joint.
    • Remission: Management involves treating the underlying condition causing secondary gout and medications to control uric acid levels, aiming for remission by preventing future flare-ups.
    • Learn More: Secondary Gout

    154. Acute Gout

    • Description: Acute gout is characterized by sudden and intense joint inflammation caused by the deposition of uric acid crystals.
    • Causes: Acute gout occurs due to a rapid increase in uric acid levels, leading to crystal formation in the joint.
    • Triggers: Triggers for acute gout attacks can include dietary factors (e.g., high-purine foods), alcohol consumption, dehydration, certain medications, or joint injury.
    • Symptoms: Symptoms include severe pain, swelling, redness, and warmth in the affected joint, often the big toe (podagra).
    • Remission: Acute gout episodes typically resolve spontaneously within a few days with treatment, aiming for remission by managing underlying uric acid levels.
    • Learn More: Acute Gout

    155. Chronic Gout

    • Description: Chronic gout refers to recurrent gout attacks and the presence of tophi (uric acid crystal deposits) in joints and tissues.
    • Causes: Chronic gout is often due to persistent high levels of uric acid in the blood, leading to repeated crystal deposition.
    • Triggers: Triggers for chronic gout flares can include dietary factors, alcohol consumption, dehydration, certain medications (e.g., diuretics), or poor management of uric acid levels.
    • Symptoms: Chronic gout include frequent gout attacks with joint pain, swelling, and the development of visible or palpable tophi.
    • Remission: Treatment involves long-term management to lower uric acid levels and prevent flares, aiming for remission by resolving tophi and reducing the frequency of gout attacks.
    • Learn More: Chronic Gout

    156. Tophaceous Gout

    • Description: Tophaceous gout is an advanced stage characterized by the deposition of tophi (uric acid crystals) in joints, cartilage, bones, and soft tissues.
    • Causes: Tophaceous gout develops from longstanding, uncontrolled gout with persistent high uric acid levels.
    • Triggers: Triggers for tophaceous gout flares can include dietary choices, alcohol consumption, dehydration, certain medications, or joint trauma.
    • Symptoms: Include visible or palpable tophi, joint deformities, chronic pain, and impaired joint function.
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on lowering uric acid levels, managing symptoms, and potentially surgically removing tophi to achieve remission and prevent further complications.
    • Learn More: Tophaceous Gout

    157. Podagra

    • Description: Podagra specifically refers to gouty arthritis affecting the joint at the base of the big toe.
    • Causes: Podagra occurs due to the deposition of uric acid crystals in the joint, often triggered by elevated uric acid levels in the blood.
    • Triggers: For podagra include dietary factors (e.g., purine-rich foods), alcohol consumption, dehydration, certain medications (e.g., diuretics), or sudden changes in uric acid levels.
    • Symptoms: Include severe pain, swelling, redness, and limited mobility in the affected joint, commonly the big toe.
    • Remission: Treatment aims to manage acute podagra flares and implement measures to prevent future attacks, with the goal of achieving remission and preventing joint damage.
    • Learn More: Podagra

    158. Localized Cutaneous Lupus

    • Description: Localized cutaneous lupus refers to a form of lupus erythematosus that primarily affects the skin, without systemic involvement.
    • Causes: The exact cause of localized cutaneous lupus is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental triggers.
    • Triggers: For localized cutaneous lupus can include exposure to sunlight (UV radiation), certain medications, infections, or hormonal factors.
    • Symptoms: Typically include skin lesions, such as discoid lesions (round, scaly patches), malar rash (butterfly-shaped rash on the face), photosensitivity (skin sensitivity to sunlight), and hair loss.
    • Remission: Treatment aims to manage skin symptoms and prevent flares by minimizing exposure to triggers (e.g., sunlight) and using topical medications (e.g., corticosteroids) to control inflammation.
    • Learn More: Localized Cutaneous Lupus

    159. SAPHO Syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis)

    • Description: SAPHO syndrome is a rare condition that involves a combination of inflammatory bone disorder (osteitis) and skin manifestations, including acne and pustulosis.
    • Causes: The exact cause of SAPHO syndrome is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to abnormal immune responses.
    • Triggers: SAPHO syndrome may include genetic factors, infections, or environmental triggers.
    • Symptoms: Include joint pain (synovitis), skin lesions (acne, pustulosis), and bony overgrowths (hyperostosis) affecting bones of the chest wall and spine.
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on managing symptoms with anti-inflammatory medications and antibiotics, aiming to achieve remission by controlling inflammation and preventing disease progression.
    • Learn More: SAPHO Syndrome (Synovitis, Acne, Pustulosis, Hyperostosis, Osteitis)

    160. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis with Systemic Manifestations (Juvenile Still’s Disease)

    • Description: Juvenile Still’s disease is a type of juvenile idiopathic arthritis characterized by systemic inflammation and multi-system involvement.
    • Causes: The exact cause is unknown but is believed to involve genetic predisposition and abnormal immune responses.
    • Triggers: Juvenile Still’s disease may include infections, environmental factors, or other unknown triggers.
    • Symptoms: Symptoms include high fever, rash, joint pain, swelling, and inflammation of internal organs (e.g., heart, liver, spleen).
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on controlling inflammation with medications (e.g., NSAIDs, corticosteroids, biologics) to achieve remission and prevent long-term complications.
    • Learn More: Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis with Systemic Manifestations (Juvenile Still’s Disease)

    161. Juvenile Gout

    • Description: Description: Juvenile gout is a rare form of arthritis characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation in the joints due to the deposition of uric acid crystals
    • Causes: The development of juvenile gout is typically linked to genetic factors that affect how the body processes and excretes uric acid, leading to elevated levels in the bloodstream
    • Triggers: Certain dietary factors, such as high intake of purine-rich foods (e.g., red meat, seafood), obesity, dehydration, and certain medications, can trigger acute gout attacks in susceptible individuals
    • Symptoms: Juvenile gout include sudden onset of intense joint pain, swelling, redness, and warmth, commonly affecting the big toe but can also involve other joints like the ankles, knees, and wrists
    • Remission: Treatment focuses on managing acute attacks with anti-inflammatory medications (e.g., NSAIDs, colchicine) and lifestyle modifications (e.g., dietary changes, weight management) to lower uric acid levels and prevent future flare-ups
    • Learn More: Juvenile Gout

    162. Drug-Induced Gout

    • Description Drug-induced gout refers to gout flare-ups triggered by certain medications, such as diuretics (water pills), aspirin, immunosuppressants, and some chemotherapy drugs, which can affect uric acid levels in the body.
    • Causes Certain medications can interfere with uric acid metabolism, leading to elevated levels and increased risk of gout attacks.
    • Triggers The use of specific medications, particularly diuretics and salicylates, can precipitate gout attacks in susceptible individuals.
    • Symptoms Drug-induced gout are similar to those of primary gout, including joint pain, swelling, redness, and warmth, usually affecting the big toe and other joints.
    • Remission Treatment involves discontinuing the offending medication whenever possible, managing acute attacks with anti-inflammatory medications, and considering alternative medications with lower risk of inducing gout.
    • Learn More Drug-Induced Gout

    163. Oligoarthritis (Pauciarticular JIA)

    • Description Oligoarthritis, or pauciarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is characterized by inflammation of fewer than five joints within the first six months of disease onset. It commonly affects large joints like knees and ankles, leading to pain, swelling, and stiffness. Oligoarthritis is often associated with eye inflammation (uveitis), requiring specialized care and regular monitoring.
    • Causes The exact cause of oligoarthritis is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors triggering an autoimmune response against joint tissues.
    • Triggers Oligoarthritis can be triggered by environmental factors or infections in genetically susceptible individuals, leading to joint inflammation and subsequent symptoms.
    • Symptoms Oligoarthritis include joint pain, swelling, and stiffness, primarily affecting the knees, ankles, and other large joints. Eye inflammation (uveitis) is a common complication associated with this type of arthritis.
    • Remission Treatment aims to control inflammation, preserve joint function, and manage associated complications like uveitis. Some individuals may achieve remission with early intervention and appropriate therapy.
    • Learn More about Oligoarthritis (Pauciarticular JIA)

    164. Polyarthritis

    • Description Oligoarthritis, or pauciarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), is characterized by inflammation of fewer than five joints within the first six months of disease onset. It commonly affects large joints like knees and ankles, leading to pain, swelling, and stiffness. Oligoarthritis is often associated with eye inflammation (uveitis), requiring specialized care and regular monitoring.
    • Causes The exact cause of oligoarthritis is unknown, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors triggering an autoimmune response against joint tissues.
    • Triggers Oligoarthritis can be triggered by environmental factors or infections in genetically susceptible individuals, leading to joint inflammation and subsequent symptoms.
    • Symptoms Oligoarthritis include joint pain, swelling, and stiffness, primarily affecting the knees, ankles, and other large joints. Eye inflammation (uveitis) is a common complication associated with this type of arthritis.
    • Remission Treatment aims to control inflammation, preserve joint function, and manage associated complications like uveitis. Some individuals may achieve remission with early intervention and appropriate therapy.
    • Learn more: Polyarthitis

    165. Enthesitis-Related Arthritis

    • Description Enthesitis-related arthritis is a subtype of juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) that primarily affects the entheses, which are the sites where tendons and ligaments attach to bones. This form of arthritis commonly involves inflammation of the spine, sacroiliac joints, and entheses around the knees and heels.
    • Causes The exact cause of enthesitis-related arthritis is unknown but is believed to involve a combination of genetic susceptibility and environmental triggers, leading to autoimmune inflammation.
    • Triggers Enthesitis-related arthritis can be triggered by infections or environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals, leading to inflammation of entheses and adjacent joints.
    • Symptoms Include joint pain, stiffness, and swelling, primarily affecting the lower extremities and spine. Enthesitis-related arthritis may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in some cases.
    • Remission Treatment focuses on reducing inflammation, preserving joint function, and managing associated conditions like IBD. Early intervention with disease-modifying medications can improve outcomes and may lead to remission in some cases.
    • Learn More about Enthesitis-Related Arthritis

    166. Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis (JPsA)

    • Remission: Possible with treatment.
    • Description: A type of arthritis affecting children with psoriasis.
    • Causes: Combination of genetic and environmental factors.
    • Triggers: Psoriasis flare-ups.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, stiffness, skin patches (psoriasis).
    • Learn more about Juvenile Psoriatic Arthritis (JPsA)

    167. Chronic Recurrent Multifocal Osteomyelitis (CRMO)

    168. Dysregulated Immune Response in Arthritis

    • Description: This type of arthritis occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own joints or tissues, leading to inflammation and joint damage.
    • Causes: Dysregulation of immune responses involving T cells, B cells, and cytokines.
    • Triggers: Genetic predisposition, environmental factors, viral infections.
    • Symptoms: Chronic inflammation, joint pain, swelling, and potential joint deformities.
    • Remission: Symptoms may improve with effective management of autoimmune factors.
    • Learn more: Dysregulated Immune Response in Arthritis

    169. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)-related Arthritis

    • Description: Joint inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel diseases like Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis.
    • Causes: Linked to autoimmune processes related to the underlying bowel conditions.
    • Triggers: Flare-ups of inflammatory bowel disease often coincide with arthritis symptoms.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, stiffness, inflammation, often affecting multiple joints.
    • Remission: Arthritis symptoms may improve with effective management of the bowel disease.
    • Learn more: Arthritis and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    170. Hemochromatosis Arthropathy

    • Description: Joint pain and stiffness caused by iron overload in the body (hemochromatosis).
    • Causes: Excess iron deposition in joints due to genetic hemochromatosis.
    • Triggers: Iron accumulation in the body over time leading to joint symptoms.
    • Symptoms: Joint pain, swelling, limited range of motion, often affecting large joints.
    • Remission: Symptoms may improve with treatment aimed at reducing iron levels.
    • Learn more: Hemochromatosis Arthropathy

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